Evolutionary Biology & Ecologyebe-Welcome.html
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phone: +32 (0)2 650 65 85

e-mail: ohardy@ulb.ac.be

Research interests

The team develops research on plant biodiversity, mostly in African rainforests. Current investigations include:

  1. Phylogeographic studies of several forest dwelling tree, herbaceous and epiphyte (orchids) species to reconstruct past population changes and test whether past climate fluctuations have lead consistent signatures across species.

  2. Population and quantitative genetics of some timber tree species to assess seed and pollen dispersal patterns and to test the occurrence of differential local adaptations by conducting provenance trials.

  3. Development of DNA barcoding approaches to identify tree species and assess the rate of misidentification in biodiversity inventories.

  4. Molecular systematics and taxonomy of some complex genus (Angraecum, Psychotria).

  5. Studies of forest tree community diversity patterns from local to continental scales to assess the relative impact of habitat filtering, drift-dispersal processes and historical events on the distribution of species and the (phylogenetic) structure of species assemblages.

  6. Theoretical work in population genetics and community ecology developing new approaches to infer processes from patterns.

  7. Development of new software for population genetics or community data analyses (SPAGeDi, SPACoDi, AutocorQ, BiodivR, TOROCOR).


Post-doctoral researchers


phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 11     e-mail: rpineiro@ulb.ac.be


Gilles DAUBY

phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 14     e-mail: gdauby@ulb.ac.be


Guillaume KOFFI

e-mail: kokoffi@ulb.ac.be



phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 14     e-mail: jeremy.migliore@ulb.ac.be


PhD students


phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 11    e-mail: Boris.Demenou@ulb.ac.be



phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 11     e-mail: armeloic@gmail.com



phone: +32 (0)2 650 22 67     e-mail: fmonthekameni@yahoo.fr


Félicien TOSSO

phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 11     e-mail: tfelicien@yahoo.fr



phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 14     e-mail: Jason.Vleminckx@ulb.ac.be

Scientific collaborator


e-mail: mheuertz@ulb.ac.be


e-mail: bsenterre@gmail.com

Bonaventure SONKE

e-mail: bsonke_1999@yahoo.com


phone: +32 (0)2 650 45 11     e-mail: Jerome.Duminil@ulb.ac.be


Previous post-doctoral researchers

Gabriel DEBOUT

Alexandra LEY

e-mail: Alexandra.Ley@ulb.ac.be



e-mail: mheuertz@ulb.ac.be


e-mail: claire.micheneau@ulb.ac.be


e-mail: m.navascues@gmail.com


e-mail: inparmen@ulb.ac.be

Previous PhD students

Eben-Ezer EWEDJE

e-mail: ewedjeben@yahoo.fr


e-mail: olachena@ulb.ac.be

Previous MSc students






Romain JANS





Publications (write an email to ohardy@ulb.ac.be for reprints)


Dainou K, Mahy G, Duminil J, et al. (2014) Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa: insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae). Heredity (Edinb).

Dauby G, Duminil J, Heuertz M, et al. (2014a) Congruent phylogeographical patterns of eight tree species in Atlantic Central Africa provide insights into the past dynamics of forest cover. Molecular Ecology 23, 2299-2312.

Dauby G, Hardy OJ, Leal M, Breteler F, Stévart T (2014b) Drivers of tree diversity in tropical rain forests: new insights from a comparison between littoral and hilly landscapes of Central Africa. Journal of Biogeography 41, 574-586.

Dellicour S, Mardulyn P, Hardy OJ, et al. (2014) Inferring the mode of colonization of the rapid range expansion of a solitary bee from multilocus DNA sequence variation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27, 116-132.

Heuertz M, Duminil J, Dauby G, Savolainen V, Hardy OJ (2014) Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa. PLoS ONE 9, e84307.

Ahanchédé A, Alfaya JEF, Andersen LW, et al. (2013) Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2012 - 30 September 2012. Molecular Ecology Resources 13, 158-159.


Budde KB, González-Martínez SC, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M (2013) The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa. Heredity 111, 66-76.

Duminil J, Brown RP, Ewédjè E-EBK, et al. (2013) Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: Insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 13, 195.

Hardy OJ, Born C, Budde K, et al. (2013) Comparative phylogeography of African rain forest trees: A review of genetic signatures of vegetation history in the Guineo-Congolian region. Comptes Rendus - Geoscience 345, 284-296.

Hutsemékers V, Hardy OJ, Vanderpoorten A (2013) Does water facilitate gene flow in spore-producing plants? Insights from the fine-scale genetic structure of the aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides (Brachytheciaceae). Aquatic Botany 108, 1-6.

Ley AC, Hardy OJ (2013) Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation - A case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow. Molecular Ecology 22, 1984-1997.

Parmentier I, Duminil J, Kuzmina M, et al. (2013) How effective are DNA barcodes in the identification of African rainforest trees? PLoS ONE 8, e54921.

Piñeiro R, Micheneau C, Dauby G, Hardy OJ (2013) Isolation of nuclear microsatellite loci in the African tree Scorodophloeus zenkeri (Fabaceae). Conservation Genetics Resources 5, 219-221.

Simo-Droissart M, Micheneau C, Sonké B, et al. (2013) Morphometrics and molecular phylogenetics of the continental African species of Angraecum section Pectinaria (Orchidaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 146, 295-309.


Anthony NM, Mickala P, Abernethy KA, et al. (2012) Biodiversity and conservation genetics research in central Africa: new approaches and avenues for international collaboration. Conservation Genetics Resources 4, 523-525.

Assogbadjo A, Fandohan B, Glèlè Kakai R, et al. (2012) Genetic evidence of the contribution of ethnic migrations to the propagation and persistence of the rare and declining scrambling shrub. Human Ecology 40, 117-128.

Baraloto C, Hardy OJ, Paine CET, et al. (2012) Using functional traits and phylogenetic trees to examine the assembly of tropical tree communities. Journal of Ecology 100, 690-701.

Daïnou K, Laurenty E, Mahy G, et al. (2012) Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. American Journal of Botany 99, 1453-1463.

Dauby G, Hardy OJ (2012) Sampled-based estimation of diversity sensu stricto by transforming Hurlbert diversities into Effective Number of Species. Ecography 35, 661-672.

Droissart V, Hardy OJ, Sonké B, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Stévart T (2012) Subsampling herbarium collections to assess geographic diversity gradients: a case-study with endemic Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae in Cameroon. Biotropica 44, 44-52.

Duminil J, Kenfack D, Viscosi V, Grumiau L, Hardy OJ (2012) Testing species delimitation in sympatric species complexes: the case of an African tropical tree, Carapa spp. (Meliaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62, 275-285.

Ewedje E-E, Parmentier I, Natta A, Ahanchédé A, Hardy OJ (2012) Morphological variability of the tallow tree, Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae), in Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59, 625-633.

Hardy OJ, Couteron P, Munoz FJ, Ramesh BR, Pélissier R (2012) Phylogenetic turnover in tropical tree communities: impact of environmental filtering, biogeography and mesoclimate niche conservatism. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21, 1007-1016.

Hardy OJ, Pavoine S (2012) Assessing phylogenetic signal with measurement error: a comparison of Mantel tests, Blomberg et al.'s K, and phylogenetic distograms. Evolution 66, 2614-2621.

Koffi KG, Heuertz M, Jans R, et al. (2012) Characterization of new microsatellite loci isolated from Santiria trimera (Burseraceae). American Journal of Botany 99, e334-e336.

Mouquet N, Devictor V, Meynard CN, et al. (2012) Ecophylogenetics: advances and perspectives. Biological Reviews 87, 769-785.


Micheneau C, Dauby G, Bourland N, Doucet J-L, Hardy OJ (2011) Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) using a cost-efficient approach. American Journal of Botany 98:e268-e270. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100070

Réjou-Mechain M, Flores O, Bourland N, Doucet J-L, Fétéké R F, Pasquier A, Hardy OJ (2011) Spatial aggregation of tropical trees at multiple spatial scales. Journal of Ecology 99, 1373–1381. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01873.x

Droissart V, Hardy OJ, Sonké B, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Stévart T (2011) Subsampling Herbarium Collections to Assess Geographic Diversity Gradients: A Case-Study with endemic Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae in Cameroon. Biotropica (in press) 43: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00777.x

Pearcy M, Hardy OJ, Aron S (2011). Automictic parthenogenesis and rate of transition to homozygosity. Heredity 107:187-188. DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2010.172

Eastman JM, Paine CET, Hardy OJ (2011) spacodiR: structuring of phylogenetic diversity in ecological communities. Bioinformatics 17:2437-2438. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr403

Droissart V, Sonké B, Hardy OJ, Simo M, Taedoumg H. Nguembou CK, Stévart T (2011) Do plant families with contrasting functional traits show similar patterns of endemism? A case study with Central African Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 1507-1531. doi: 10.1007/s10531-011-0042-z

Schaefer H, Hardy OJ, Silva L, Barraclough T, Savolainen V (2011) Testing Darwin’s naturalisation hypothesis in the Azores. Ecology Letters 14:389-396. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01600.x

Réjou-Méchain M, Hardy OJ (2011) Properties of similarity indices under niche-based and dispersal-based processes in communities. The American Naturalist 177: 589-604. doi: 10.1086/659627

Duminil J, Koffi GK, Debout G, Sebastiani F, Vendramin GG, Heuertz M, Gonzalez-Martinez SC, Hardy OJ (2011). Isolation of SSR markers for two African tree tropical species Erythrophleum suaveolens and E. ivorense (Caesalpinioideae). American Journal of Botany 98: E106-E108. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1000482

Bourguignon T, Šobotník J, Lepoint G, Martin J-M, Hardy OJ, Dejean A, Roisin Y (2011) Feeding ecology and phylogenetic structure of a complex neotropical termite assemblage, revealed by nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Ecological Entomology 36: 261-269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2011.01265.x

Koffi KG; Hardy OJ, Doumenge C, Cruaud C, Heuertz M (2011) Diversity gradients and phylogeographic patterns in a widespread African tree typical of mature rainforests, Santiria trimera (Burseraceae). American Journal of Botany 98: 254-264. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1000220

Vanderpoorten A, Hardy OJ, Lambinon J, Raspé O (2011) Two reproductively isolated cytotypes and a swarm of highly inbred, disconnected populations : a glimpse into Salicornia’s evolutionary history… and challenging taxonomy. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 142: 204-208. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02198.x  

Parmentier I, Harrigan RJ, Buermann W, Mitchard ETA, Saatchi S, Malhi Y, Bongers F, Hawthorne WD, Leal ME, Lewis SL, Nusbaumer L, Sheil D, Sosef MSM, Affum-Baffoe K, Bakayoko A, Chuyong GB, Chatelain C, Comiskey JA, Dauby G, Doucet J-L, Faucet S, Gautier L, Gillet J-F, Kenfack D, Kouamé FN, Kouassi EK, Kouka LA, Parren MPE, Peh KS-H, Reitsma JM, Senterre B, Sonké B, Sunderland TCH, Swaine MD, Tchouto MGP, Thomas D, Van Valkenburg JLCH, Hardy OJ (2011). Predicting alpha diversity of African rain forests: models based on climate and satellite-derived data do not perform better than a purely spatial model. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1164-1176. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02467.x

Van Rossum F, Stiers I, Van Geert A, Triest L, Hardy OJ (2011) Fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues for measuring pollen dispersal in an insect-pollinated forest herbs. Oecologia 165: 663–674. doi: 10.1007/s00442-010-1745-7.

Leducq J-B, Llaurens V, Castric V, Saumitou-Laprade P, Hardy OJ, Vekemans X (2011) The effect of balancing selection on spatial genetic structure within populations: theoretical investigations on the self-incompatibility locus and empirical studies in Arabidopsis halleri. Heredity 106: 319-329. doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.68

Debout GDG, Doucet J-L, Hardy OJ (2011) Population history and dispersal ecology inferred from spatial genetic structure of a Central African timber tree, Distemonanthus benthamianus (Caesalpinioideae). Heredity 106:88-99. doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.35

Saad L, Tiébré M-S, Hardy OJ, Mahy G, Vanderhoeven S (2011) Patterns of hybridization and hybrid survival in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex. Plant Ecology & Evolution 144: 12-18. doi:10.5091/plecevo.2011.444.


Ndiade-Bourobou D, Hardy OJ, Favreau B, Moussavou H, Nzengue E, Mignot A, Bouvet JM (2010) Long-distance seed and pollen dispersal inferred from the spatial genetic structure at chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers in the very low density rainforest tree, Baillonella toxisperma Pierre in Central Africa. Molecular Ecology 19: 4949-4962.

Duminil J, Heuertz M, Doucet J-L, Bourland N, Cruaud C; Gavory F; Doumenge C, Navascués M, Hardy OJ (2010) CpDNA-based species identification and phylogeography: application to a complex of African tropical tree species. Molecular Ecology 19: 5469–5483. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04917.x

Daïnou K, Bizoux J-P, Doucet J-L, Mahy G, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M (2010) Forest refugia revisited: SSRs and cpDNA sequences support historical isolation in a wide-spread African tree with high colonization capacity, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae). Molecular Ecology 19:4462-4477.

Ley A, Hardy OJ (2010) Species delimitation in the Central African herbs Haumania (Marantaceae) using georeferenced nuclear and chloroplastic DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57:859–867. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.08.027

Koffi KG, Heuertz M, Doumenge C, Onana J-M, Gavory F, Hardy OJ (2010) A combined analysis of morphological traits, chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences within Santiria trimera (Burseraceae) suggests several species following the Biological Species Concept. Plant Ecology & Evolution 143:160–169.

Yedmel MS, Kadio AA, Hardy OJ, Kouame NF, Barbier NS (2010) Impact du feu sur la structure et la composition floristique d’un peuplement forestier de Côte d’Ivoire et interaction avec les traitements sylvicoles. Revue canadienne de recherche forestière 40:1904-1913.

Segelbacher G, Cushman SA, Epperson BK, Fortin M-J, Francois O, Hardy OJ, Holderegger R, Taberlet P, Waits LP, Manel S. (2010) Applications of Landscape Genetics in Conservation Biology: Concepts and Challenges. Conservation Genetics 11:375–385.

Dauby G, Duminil J, Heuertz M, Hardy OJ (2010) Chloroplast DNA polymorphism and phylogeography of a Central African tree species widespread in mature rainforests: Greenwayodendron suaveolens (Annonaceae). Tropical Plant Biology 3: 4-13.

Vanderpoorten A, Raspé O, Risterrucci AM, Gohy L, Hardy O.J. (2010) Identification and characterization of eight nuclear microsatellite loci in the glasswort genus Salicornia (Chenopodiaceae). Belgian Journal of Botany 142: 204-208.

Hutsemekers V, Hardy OJ, Mardulyn P, Shaw AJ, Vanderpoorten A (2010) Macroecological patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the aquatic moss Platyhypnidium riparioides. New Phytologist 185: 852-864.


Hardy O.J. (2009) How fat is the tail? Heredity 103, 437–438.

Bizoux J-P., Daïnou K., Bourland N., Hardy O.J., Heuertz M., Mahy G., Doucet JL. (2009) Spatial genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene dispersal in a low density wind pollinated tropical tree. Molecular Ecology 18:4398-4408.

Duminil J., Hardy O. J., Petit R.J. (2009) Plant traits correlated with generation time directly affect inbreeding depression and mating system and indirectly genetic structure. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:177.

Kyndt T, Assogbadjo AE, Hardy OJ, Glele Kakaï R, Sinsin B, Van Damme P, Gheysen G. (2009) Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa. American Journal of Botany 96: 950-957.

Navascués M., Hardy O. J., Burgarella C. (2009) Characterization of demographic expansions from pairwise comparisons of linked microsatellite haplotypes. Genetics 181: 1013-1019.

Parmentier I., Hardy O. J. (2009) The impact of ecological differentiation and dispersal limitation on species turnover and phylogenetic structure of inselberg’s plant communities. Ecography 32: 613-622.


Hardy O. J. (2008) Testing the spatial phylogenetic structure of local communities : statistical performances of different null models and test statistics on a locally neutral community. Journal of Ecology 96: 914–926.

Hardy O. J., L. Jost. (2008) Interpreting and estimating measures of community phylogenetic structuring. Journal of Ecology 96: 849–852

Hutsemékers V., Risterucci A.M., Ricca M., Boles S., Hardy O. J., Shaw A.J., Vanderpoorten, A. (2008) Identification and characterization of nuclear microsatellite loci in the aquatic moss Platyhypnidium riparioides (Brachytheciaceae). Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1130–1132.

Dick C. W., Hardy O. J., Jones F. A., Petit R. (2008) Spatial scales of pollen and seed-mediated gene flow in tropical rain forest trees. Tropical Plant Biology 1: 20–33.

Born C., Hardy O. J., Ossari S., Attéké C., Wickings E. J., Chevallier M.-H., Hossaert-McKey M. (2008) Small-scale spatial genetic structure in the Central African rainforest tree species, Aucoumea klaineana: a hierarchical approach to infer the impact of limited gene dispersal, population history and habitat fragmentation. Molecular Ecology 17: 2041-2050.

Vanderpoorten, A., N. Devos, B. Goffinet, O. J. Hardy, A. J. Shaw (2008). The barriers to oceanic island radiation in bryophytes: insights from the phylogeography of the moss Grimmia montana. Journal of Biogeography 35: 654–663.

Hardy O. J., Pearcy M., Aron S. (2008). Small-scale spatial genetic structure in an ant species with sex-biased dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 465–473.


Basset, Y., Corbara, B., Barrios, H., Cuénoud, P., Leponce, M., Aberlenc, H.-P., Bail, J., Bito, D., Bridle, J. R., Castaño-Meneses, G., Cizek, L., Cornejo, A., Curletti, G., Delabie, J. H. C., Dejean, A., Didham, R. K., Dufrêne, M., Fagan, L. L., Floren, A., Frame, D. M., Hallé, F., Hardy, O. J., Hernandez, A., Kitching, R. L., Lewinsohn, T. M., Lewis, O. T., Manumbor, M., Medianero, E., Missa, O., Mitchell, A. W., Mogia, M., Novotny, V., Oliveira, E. G. d., Ødegaard, F., Orivel, J., Ozanne, C. M. P., Pascal, O., Pinzón, S., Rapp, M., Ribeiro, S. P., Roisin, Y., Roslin, T., Roubik, D. W., Samaniego, M., Schmidl, J., Sørensen, L. L., Tishechkin, A., Van Osselaer, C. & Winchester, N. N. (2007) IBISCA-Panama, a large-scale study of arthropod beta-diversity and vertical stratification in a lowland rainforest: rationale, description of study sites and field methodology. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique-Entomologie 77: 39-69.

Tiébré M.-S., Bizoux J.-P., Hardy O.J., Bailey J. P., Mahy G (2007). Hybridization and morphogenetic variation in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium (Western Europe). American Journal of Botany 94: 1900-1910.

Cloutier D., Hardy O. J., Caron H., Ciampi A. Y., Degen B., Kanashiro M., Schoen D. J. (2007). Low inbreeding and high pollen dispersal distances in populations of two Amazonian forest tree species Biotropica 39: 406–415.

Hardy O. J., B. Senterre (2007). Characterising the phylogenetic structure of communities by an additive partitioning of phylogenetic diversity. Journal of Ecology 95: 493–506.

Valbuena-Carabaña M., González-Martínez S.C., Hardy O.J., Gil L. (2007). Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in mixed oak stands with different levels of hybridization. Molecular Ecology 16: 1207-1219.


Pearcy M, O. J. Hardy, S Aron (2006). Thelytokous parthenogenesis and its consequences on inbreeding in an ant. Heredity 96: 377-382.

Hardy, O. J., L. Maggia, E. Bandou, P. Breyne, H. Caron, M-H. Chevallier, A. Doligez, C. Dutech, A. Kremer, C. Latouche-Hallé, V. Troispoux, V. Veron, B. Degen (2006). Fine-scale genetic structure and gene dispersal inferences in ten neotropical tree species. Molecular Ecology 15: 559-571.


Michaux, J.R., O.J. Hardy, F. Justy, P. Fournier, A. Kranz, M. Cabria, A.Davison, R. Rosoux & R. Libois (2005). Conservation genetics and population history of the threatened European mink Mustela lutreola, with an emphasis on the West European population. Molecular Ecology 14: 2373–2388.

Parmentier, I., T. Stévart & O. J. Hardy (2005). The inselberg flora of Atlantic Central Africa. I. Determinants of species assemblages. Journal of Biogeography 32: 685-696.


Hardy, O. J., S. C. González-Martínez, B. Colas, H. Fréville, A. Mignot & I. Olivieri (2004). Fine-scale genetic structure and gene dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae) II. Correlated paternity within and among sibships. Genetics 168: 1601–1614.

Heuertz, M., S. Fineschi, M. Anzidei, R. Pastorelli, D. Salvini, L. Paule, N. Frascaria-Lacoste, O. J. Hardy, X. Vekemans, G. G. Vendramin. (2004). Chloroplast DNA variation and postglacial recolonization of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in Europe. Molecular Ecology 13: 3437-3452.

Kelly, B. A., O. J. Hardy & J.-M. Bouvet (2004). Temporal and spatial genetic structure of Vitellaria paradoxa (shea nut tree) in agroforestry system in southern Mali. Molecular Ecology 13: 1231-1240.

Heuertz, M., J.-F. Hausman, O. J. Hardy, G. G. Vendramin, N. Frascaria-Lacoste & X. Vekemans (2004). Nuclear microsatellites reveal contrasting patterns of genetic structure between western and southeastern european populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Evolution 58: 976–988.

Vekemans, X. & O. J. Hardy (2004). New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations. Molecular Ecology 13: 921-935.

Hardy, O. J. & B. Sonké (2004). Spatial pattern analysis of tree species distribution in a tropical rainforest in Cameroon: assessing the role of limited dispersal and niche differentiation. Forest Ecology and Management, 197: 191-202.

Hardy, O. J., S. C. González-Martínez , H. Fréville, G. Boquien, A. Mignot, B. Colas & I. Olivieri (2004). Fine-scale genetic structure and gene dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae) I. Pattern of pollen dispersal. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 795-806.


Heuertz, M., X. Vekemans, J. F. Hausman, M. Palada & O. J. Hardy (2003). Estimating seed vs. pollen dispersal from spatial genetic structure in the common ash. Molecular Ecology 12: 2483-2495.

Fenster, C. B., X. Vekemans & O. J. Hardy (2003). Quantifying gene flow from spatial genetic structure data in a metapopulation of Chamaecrista fasciculata (Leguminosae). Evolution 57: 995-1007.

Hardy, O. J. (2003). Estimation of pairwise relatedness between individuals and characterisation of isolation by distance processes using dominant genetic markers. Molecular Ecology 12: 1577-1588.

Hardy, O. J., N. Charbonnel, H. Fréville & M. Heuertz (2003). Microsatellite allele sizes : a simple test to assess their significance on genetic differentiation. Genetics 163: 1467–1482


Vanderhoeven, S., O. J. Hardy, X. Vekemans, C. Lefèbvre, M. De Loose, J. Lambinon, & P. Meerts (2002). A morphometric study of populations of the Centaurea jacea complex (Asteraceae) in Belgium. Plant Biology 4: 403-412.

Hardy, O. J. & X. Vekemans (2002). SPAGeDi : a versatile computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levels. Molecular Ecology Notes 2: 618-620.

Hardy, O. J., M. De Loose, X. Vekemans & P. Meerts (2001). Allozyme segregation and inter-cytotype reproductive barriers in the polyploid complex Centaurea jacea. Heredity 87: 136-145.

Hardy, O. J. & X. Vekemans (2001). Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales. Evolution 55: 943-954.

Tiedemann, R., O. J. Hardy, X. Vekemans & M.C. Milinkovitch (2000). Higher impact of female than male migration on population structure in large mammals. Molecular Ecology 9: 1159-1164.

Hardy, O. J., S. Vanderhoeven, P. Meerts, & X. Vekemans (2000). Spatial autocorrelation of allozyme and quantitative markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea (Asteraceae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 656-667.

Hardy, O. J., S. Vanderhoeven, M. De Loose, & P. Meerts (2000). Ecological, morphological and allozymic differentiation between diploid and tetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea) from a contact zone in the Belgian Ardennes. New Phytologist 146: 281-290.

Hardy, O. J. & X. Vekemans (1999). Isolation by distance in a continuous population: reconciliation between spatial autocorrelation analysis and population genetics models. Heredity, 83: 145-154.

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  1. Olivier Hardy Group     Plant population genetics and community diversity in tropical rainforests